Why Pakistan was created!
Once again the sham stage for the drama of election (Noora Kushti) in Pakistan finished on the cost of poor broken people.
There is always a question click in my mind that why was Pakistan separated or created whatever you say, and what was in the mind of those who are at the helm of affairs of Pakistan movement. I will try to delve in history to procure answers of my real questions.
As per historical context, as the aftermath of two world wars, the USSR and USA emerge as superpowers and the UK was under the umbrella of the USA. Britain’s economic condition was also precarious and as a consequence, British India had become a liability at a time when Britain could least afford it. British India became a political and symbolic liability as well as an economic problem.
Moreover, American pressure to decolonize the subcontinent influenced against British Raj and due to decades of the pressure of Indian nationalist and civil unrest across the continent which caused growing political resistance to British rule, finally granted independence to its imperial possession. In 1947 independence resulted in the birth of two sovereign nations instead of united India!
The decision to divide India was implemented because of the some Muslim leader’s “two-nation” theory, uphold by Dr. Allama Iqbal, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, and other Muslim leaders. According to this theory, Hindus, who constituted the majority in most of British India, and Muslims, who constituted the majority only in India’s northeast and northwest provinces, should not be forced to live together as one nation.
Muslim’s two-nation theory was strongly criticized by the leadership of Congress Party dominated by Hindus, argued that religion by itself could not constitute the basis for creating either an Islamic Pakistan or a Hindu India. Critics of the two-nation theory noted that Hindus and Muslims had lived side by side throughout the region for centuries before British rule and could not be readily separated.
After a lengthy wrangle with the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League, Great Britain eventually agreed to divide India. The parties agreed to establish borders making the northeast and northwest provinces of India into a single country with two territories viz East and West Pakistan, located one thousand miles apart.
This is obvious that British rule was illegal and the end of the British rule became necessary and inevitable. There were three big players who caused and responsible for a separate Muslim homeland by dividing the subcontinent. They were the British, the Congress and the Muslim League. Indian National Congress was calling for Britain to Quit India while the Muslim League passed a resolution demanded: “Divide and Quit.” The British established the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh, UP and supported the All-India Muslim Conference. The institutions from which leaders of the Muslim League and the ideology of Pakistan emerged. As soon as the league was formed, Muslims were placed on a separate electorate. Thus, the separateness of Muslims in India was built into the Indian electoral process.
The British, as colonizers, had a divide-and-rule policy in India. They classified Indians according to their religion. They intrigued and treated them as separate from each other. Instead of Indian identity they promoted and adopted a religious identity. The British rulers instigated their intrinsic differences of different religions. British also trampled Muslims due to the angst of the potential threat from the Muslims, the former rulers of the subcontinent.
Moreover, Hindu extremist and fundamentalists also played an afflictive vital role, caused deepened the chasm and cleavage between the Muslims and Hindus. They resented and annoyed Muslims for their former rule over India. They muster for a common purpose to ban on the slaughter of cows. They also wanted to change the official script from the Persian to the Hindi, making Hindi rather than Urdu the main candidate for the national language.
As a matter of fact, the British policies, importunate and stubbornness of the Congress and the behaviour of Hindu fundamentalists were indirectly in the favor of the demand of Pakistan, the idea of creating a separate country for Muslims. On the other hand, prominent Mulla like Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Maulana Husain Ahmad Madani, and Molana Abul Ala Maududi was against it and vehemently opposed the creation of Pakistan.
The early Muslim society and empire stretched from north Africa in the west to the Arabian Sea and Persia in the east which was developed and implemented by Prophet of Islam, Muhammad and his two successive Khalifas. At least up to the second Khalifa, the pure principles of the Quran were gradually implemented.
In the absence of the notorious Sharia Laws, the three baneful institutions of human exploitation namely kingships, priesthood, and capitalism were uprooted and extirpated in early Muslim state. Thus, people were enjoying rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Quran and were completely free from any political, religious or economic abolishment, embezzlement, and exploitation.
Soon after so-called Muslim religious leaders, licentious politicians, depraved reformists asked and convinced to Muslims by the invention of hadith to follow them blindly as “sheep follow a shepherd.” Social order established according to the Quran was soon corrupted by the unity of monarchy and sacerdotalism to ensure their survival. So-called Muslim scholars do not change themselves, but they change the Quran with the introduction of condimental ‘Hadith and Islamic Sharia,’ consist of flattery and chicanery. The social order implemented on the basis of the Quran was replaced by dictatorships and the Quran was never allowed to play any practical part in the lives of the Muslims since then. They posed as the interpreters of God's will and thus distorted the principles and tenets of the Quran, enabling them to stifle it as a living force in the society.
This state of affairs has prevailed throughout the Muslim countries for centuries and until today. Unfortunately, since then Muslims are led strayed. They are following corrupted, metamorphosed and mutilated version of Islam subterfuges and represented by Mulla Maffia. Indian Mulla has no exceptions other than the Arab Mulla. What a nation and what the leadership of this nation, most of those brazen, impudent Ullmas and Mullas who were entirely antagonist of the creation of Pakistan jumped to Pakistan, after it was created and then even bluntly started demanding power. They argued that since Pakistan was created in the name of Islam hence we as the custodians of Islam, should have the power to implement a corrupted version of Islam; a suppurating sore of Pakistan!
Allama Iqbal first time gave the idea of Pakistan. Dr. Allama Iqbal. Although he was not a professional Mulla or Molvi under the patronage of any Madrasa, (the catchall of all evils) but he was fully conversant and had a deep knowledge of Muslims’ history, the Quran. He adhered and devoted his whole life for understanding and propagating Quranic ideology, philosophy, and its political process. He categorically warned to the Muslims that “if you wish to live the life of a Muslim, then it is not possible except to live by the Quran, not by the Sharia.” He emphasized in his poetic couplet that Muslims have to guide their lives collectively and stressed on a social order based on the Quran not according to the Sharia Laws.
It is necessary to find out the factual answer of the basic question, ‘why Pakistan was created’ and to understand the genesis and ideology of Pakistan, go directly to the main source, the originator of the idea of Pakistan and presented the ideology for its movement, Dr. Allama Iqbal and Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the implementer of the idea of Pakistan and provided the requisite leadership for the political impetus needed for its eventual realization as a country. On the contrarily, if we turn to other sources we will be engage in the absurd arguments and counter-arguments, ludicrous debates and counter-debates, and so on.
I would like to mount several quotations from recorded speeches and writings of Dr. Allama Iqbal and Mohammed Ali Jinnah.
Dr. Allama Iqbal clarifies in his book Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam; “…during the course of history, the moral and social ideals of Islam have been gradually de-Islamized through the influence of local character, and pre-Islamic superstitions of Muslim nations. These ideals today are more Iranian, Turkish, or Arabic than Islamic… The only alternative open to us then is to tear off from Islam the hard crust which has immobilized an essentially dynamic outlook on life, and to rediscover the original verities of freedom, equality, and solidarity with a view to rebuild our moral, social and political ideals out of their original simplicity and universality.” He further delineated, “The teaching of the holy Quran that life is a process of progressive creation necessitates that each generation guided but unhampered by the work of its predecessors, should be permitted to solve its own problems.”
On the historical occasion of the All India Muslim League session at Allahabad in 1930, he said in his presidential address, “I, therefore, demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state in the best interests of India and Islam. For India, it means security and peace resulting from an internal balance of power; for Islam, an opportunity to rid itself of the stamp that Arabian Imperialism was forced to give it, to mobilize its laws, its education, its culture, and to bring them into closer contact with its own original spirit and with the spirit of modern times.”
Further more, at the annual session of the All India Muslim conference at Lahore on March 21, 1932, he said: “…the possibility of the faith you represent is not yet exhausted. It can still create a new world where the social rank of man is not determined by his caste or color, or the amount of dividend he earns, but by the kind of life he lives: where capital cannot be allowed to accumulate so as to dominate the real producer of wealth. This superb ideal of your faith, however, needs emancipation from the medieval fancies of emotions, which, during the course of centuries, we have woven around ourselves. And be it further said to the shame of us- men of older generations- that we failed to equip the younger generation for the economic, political and even religious crisis that the present age is likely to bring. The community needs a complete overhauling of its mentality in order that it may again become capable of feeling the urge of fresh desires and ideal.”
After the said demised of Dr. Allama Iqbal on 21st April 1938, aged 60, all responsibilities to accomplish the task handed over to Mohammed Ali Jinnah, who personally persuaded to make up the challenge of fulfilling the dream of the Pakistan comes true
In his presidential address in 1940, Mohammed Ali Jinnah emphasized, “It is extremely difficult to appreciate why our Hindu friends fail to understand the real nature of Islam and Hinduism. They are not religions in the strict sense of the word but are, in fact, different and distinct in social orders. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs, and literature. They belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspects of life and our lives are different.” (Please note: I do not personally agree with his opinion)
When, in April 1943 he was addressing NWFP Muslim Students Federation, he said, “You have asked me to give a message. What message can I give you? We have got the great message in the Quran for our guidance and enlightenment.”
In one of his speech on 21st November 1945, at the Frontier Muslim League Conference, he said, “We have to fight a double edged battle, one against the Hindu Congress and the British Imperialists, both of them being capitalists. (How he forget Muslim Imperialist. What is the difference between a Muslim or non-Muslim imperialist?) The Muslims demand Pakistan where they could rule according to their own code of life and according to their own cultural growth, traditions and Islamic laws.”
In the real Islam, delivered by Prophet of Islam, there is not any possibility or place of economic exploitation by the capitalists in an ideal Islamic state. Mohammed Ali Jinnah reminded this fact to all sort of extortioner elements in his presidential address delivered to the annual session of the All India Muslim League, in Delhi on April 24, 1943; “Here I should like to give a warning to the landlords and capitalists who have flourished at our expense by a system which is so vicious, which is so wicked and which makes them so selfish that it is difficult to reason with them. The exploitation of the masses has gone into their blood. They have forgotten the lessons of Islam. Greed and selfishness have made these people subordinate to the interests of others in order to fatten themselves. It is true we are not in power today. You go anywhere to the countryside. I have visited villages. There are millions and millions of our people who hardly get one meal a day. Is this civilization? Is this the aim of Pakistan? Do you visualize that millions have been exploited and cannot get one meal a day? If this is the idea of Pakistan, I would not have it. If they are wise, they will have to adjust themselves to the new modern conditions of life. If they don't, God helps them, we shall not help them.”
In 1945, as Eid message to the nation, he said; “Every Muslim knows that the injunctions of the Quran are not confined to religious and moral duties. Everyone except those who are ignorant knows that the Quran is the general code of the Muslims. A religious, social, civil, commercial, military, judicial, criminal and penal code; it regulates everything from the ceremonies of religion to those of daily life; from the salvation of the soul to the health of the body; from the rights of all to those of each individual; from morality to crime; from punishment here to that in the life to come, and our Prophet has enjoined on us that every Muslim should possess a copy of the Holy Quran and be his own priest. Therefore, Islam is not confined to the spiritual tenets and doctrines and rituals and ceremonies. It is a complete code regulating the whole Muslim society in every department of life, collectively and individually.”
Mohammed Ali Jinnah gave an interview to the students of the Usmania University in August 1941. Shrewd and blunt replies explain his depth and comprehension of the basic foundations of Islam. I am quoting some extract from the interview:
Question: What are the essential features of religion and a religious state?
Answer: When I hear the word “Religion,” my mind thinks of once, according to the English language and British usage, of private relations between man and God. But I know full well that according to Islam, the word is not restricted to the English connotation. I am neither a Maulvi nor a Mullah, nor do I claim knowledge of theology. But I have studied in my own way the Holy Quran and Islamic tenets. This magnificent book is full of guidance respecting all human life, whether spiritual or economic, political or social, leaving no aspect untouched.
Question: What is the distinctive feature of the Islamic state?
Answer: There is a special feature of the Islamic state which must not be overlooked. There, obedience is due to God and God alone, which takes practical shape in the observance of the Quranic principles and commands. In Islam, obedience is due neither to a king, nor to a parliament, nor to any other organization. It is the Quranic provisions which determine the limits of our freedom and restrictions in political and social spheres. In other words, the Islamic state is an agency for enforcement of the Quranic principles and injunctions.
Any ambiguity was further clarified by a close associate of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and first Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan, in his historic speech delivered on the Objectives Resolution on 9th March, 1949. He clearly spells out the spirit and genesis of Pakistan, and the fundamental role of Islam in the lives of the people of Pakistan:
“Pakistan was founded because the Muslims of this sub-continent wanted to build up their lives in accordance with the teachings and traditions of Islam, because they wanted to demonstrate to the world that Islam provides a panacea to the many diseases which have crept into the life of humanity today.”
He further added: “Islam does not recognize either priesthood or any sacerdotal authority and therefore, the question of a theocracy simply does not arise in the Islam. If there are any who still use the word theocracy in the same breath as the polity of Pakistan, they are either laboring under a grave misapprehension, or indulging in mischievous "propaganda.”
Moreover, he said; “The Preamble of the Resolution deals with a frank and unequivocal recognition of the fact that all authority must be subservient to God. It is quite true that this is in direct contradiction to the Machiavellian ideas regarding a polity where spiritual and ethical values should play no part in the governance of the people and, therefore, it is also perhaps a little out of fashion to remind ourselves of the fact that the State should be an instrument of beneficence and not of evil.”
“The Muslim [in Pakistan] shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accord with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah.”
Finally, due to the disruptive and destructive event of the partition of India, millions of people found themselves on the “wrong” side within a night after hastily drawn borders between India and Pakistan. The partition of India left both India and Pakistan devastated, cost an estimated one million lives. Ten million people coerced to move from one new country to another. Innocent masses of both sides were facing the events of devastated mobs, violence, riots, rapes, murders, and looting. The refugee movement and resettlement on a mass scale. In addition to India’s partition, the provinces of Punjab and Bengal were divided. This caused catastrophic riots and calamities for Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs alike. Fifteen million refugees poured across the borders to regions completely foreign to them. Because their identities were rooted in the geographical home of their ancestors, not their religious affiliations alone.
As a matter of fact, due to the partition of the Indian continent, an immense and intricate situation emerged, locally and globally. Since incept, both nations are engaged in the trade of accusations of snooping and interfering in each other’s internal affairs and of inciting violence and civil unrest. India and Pakistan consist almost of one-fifth of the world’s population, their size and influence and their mutual continued flash point long-standing conflicts are the cause of global concern. Their antagonistic and antipathetic affinity and analogy has been marked by three major wars and they are compelled to establish allegiances with China, the former Soviet Union, and the United States and other major big players.
Trials and tribulations are not finished yet because India and Pakistan immediately went to war in 1947 over the disputed territory of Kashmir. Kashmir was also the cause of the 1965 war between India and Pakistan. A third war was fought not by Kashmir, but due to Indian intervention in Pakistani internal conflicts. This war resulted in an Indian victory and the secession of East Pakistan from Pakistan to create the new nation of Bangladesh in 1971. India viewed the creation of Bangladesh as a definitive repudiation of the two-nation theory, arguing that two-nation theory has failed. Unfortunately, the hostility between India and Pakistan continues to revolve largely around Kashmir dispute as a core issue.
Although more than a half-century past, India and Pakistan gained their independence ramifications of partition miseries, the wounds caused by the partition are not healed and continue to be felt in these two South Asian neighbors.
As a precedent, I would like to put rundown of the brief Pakistani crisis:
In the world, the delineation of Pakistan is not just unpleasant but sorely bitter, and a Pakistani layman is coerced to accept that the country is indeed sinking into a deeper mess, particularly due to nefarious activities of extremist militant groups; extremism and terrorist violence appear to be increasing overall, rather than declining. These extremist groups are gaining more power and freedom to operate according to their agenda and so-called governments are afraid to clamp down hard on these militant groups. The extremists have become impudent and insolent. By virtue of the ideology of extremism which rejects all faiths and beliefs, except branded or tailored version of Islam which these militants are following. A tailored version of Islam promotes hatred and sectarian caused violence and blood shed increased all over the country.
PIA, Railways, Pakistan Steel Mill and complete Infrastructure of the country literally collapsed due to plunder, embezzlement, defalcation, peculation and larceny even filch from top to bottom scale. The economy of the country took a heavy hit as resources were diverted to fight growing menaces and banes. All provinces became a battleground for various political and religious groups. The city of Karachi, divided in No-Go Zones, once was the paradise and financial hub turned in the smoldering cauldron of violence and bombings or sectarian fueled killings.
From the incept, Pakistan adopted erroneous and fatal Afghan policy without consideration all the ramifications, consequently. Pakistan became the battleground for hundreeds of extremist groups. They do not only ventured across the border to create mayhem, but also began successfully recruiting harmonious individuals from within Pakistan to their brand of ideology. Pakistan is literally no more any sovereign state since its innocent civilians victimize by drones or aircraft and Pakistani government cannot do any thing except chicanery and demurrer.
All Pakistani government has failed to rectify the quandary, botheration, and demands of the marginalized people of Baluchistan. They have also been victimized by continuous repression and economic denial. There is no doubt that the provincial feudal lords are behind the misery of most of their people. They have been freely operating in tyranny within their domain has spurred calls by the downtrodden people of the province for breaking away from Pakistan and forming a new country. All Pakistani civil or military governments equally share the responsibility of this fiasco. If this situation sustained then after Dhaka fall, it is not hard for me to envisaged, we have to face the second fall in the form of ‘Quetta Fall,’ very soon.
I will not condescend to put it bluntly to Pakistani so-called politicians, Mulla, and most rough players namely Military landlords to disabuse you and your foolish notion about Pakistan. For the sake of all of this Pakistan was separated from India and millions of human beings sacrificed their lives for this cause? India Pakistan disunion was not the result of fighting of bellicose gangs of desperados, mafia or gangster for the sake of areas for dirty money. This miracle happened and this country exalted due to the battle of ideologies. Alas! The ideology of Iqbal and dream of Jinnah scattered. Iqbal died before the creation of Pakistan, Jinnah demised in very early stage and Pakistan stuck in the turpitude triangle of plausible, snollygoster politicians; braggart, hypocrite, facile and glib Mullas and most devastate extortioner the bohemian Pakistani Army. Their greed and selfishness continue unabated and finally, whole Pakistani society are lost moral compass and remaining Pakistan are cultural, economically, morally and spiritually impoverished. The funniest thing about this country is this; no body is really honest, veracious or unfeigned about what they look like or pretend.
These are the simple reasons why being as a Pakistani I am upset with Pakistanis, not with Pakistan.
Your comments even raving and ranting are welcome on my E-mail address: email@example.com